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Transcriber's Note

A number of typographical errors and inconsistencies have been
maintained in this version of this book. They have been marked with a
[TN-#], which refers to a description in the complete list found at the
end of the text.




[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Gateway at Labna. [See p. 144.]




ANCIENT AMERICA,
IN
NOTES ON AMERICAN ARCHÆOLOGY.


BY JOHN D. BALDWIN, A.M.,
AUTHOR OF "PRE-HISTORIC NATIONS."


_WITH ILLUSTRATIONS._


NEW YORK:
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
FRANKLIN SQUARE.




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, by
JOHN D. BALDWIN,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.




PREFACE.


The purpose of this volume is to give a summary of what is known of
American Antiquities, with some thoughts and suggestions relative to
their significance. It aims at nothing more. No similar work, I believe,
has been published in English or in any other language. What is known of
American Archæology is recorded in a great many volumes, English,
French, Spanish, and German, each work being confined to some particular
department of the subject, or containing only an intelligent traveler’s
brief sketches of what he saw as he went through some of the districts
where the old ruins are found. Many of the more important of these works
are either in French or Spanish, or in great English quartos and folios
which are not accessible to general readers, and not one of them
attempts to give a comprehensive view of the whole subject.

Therefore I have prepared this work for publication, believing it will
be acceptable to many who are not now much acquainted with the remains
of Ancient America, and that some who read it may be induced to study
the but as Ancient America covers all time previous to the discovery by
Columbus, they may not be deemed out of place. Materials for the paper
on “Antiquities of the Pacific Islands” came to me from the Pacific
World while I was preparing the others. The discovery of the Pacific is
so intimately connected with the discovery of America, that this paper
would not be out of place even if the Mexican and Peruvian traditions
did not mention that a foreign people communicated with the western
coast of America in very ancient times.

WORCESTER, MASS., _November_, 1871.




CONTENTS.


Page
I. ANCIENT AMERICA.--THE MOUND-BUILDERS 13
Works of the Mound-Builders 14
Extent of their Settlements 31
Their Civilization 33
Their Ancient Mining Works 43

II. ANTIQUITY OF THE MOUND-BUILDERS 47
How long were they here? 51

III. WHO WERE THE MOUND-BUILDERS? 57
Not Ancestors of the Wild Indians 58
Brereton’s Story 62
American Ethnology 65
Who the Mound-Builders were 70

IV. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA 76
Their Northern Remains 77
The “Seven Cities of Cevola” 85
Central Mexico 89
The great Ruins at the South 93

V. MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA 103
Palenque 104
Copan and Quiragua[TN-1] 111
Mitla 117
An Astronomical Monument 122
Ruins farther South 123
The Ruins in Yucatan 125
Mayapan 127
Uxmal 131
Kabah 137
Chichen-Itza 140
Other Ruins 144

VI. ANTIQUITY OF THE RUINS 151
Distinct Eras traced 155
Nothing perishable left 156
“The Oldest of Civilizations” 159
American Cities seen by Tyrians 161

VII. WHENCE CAME THIS CIVILIZATION? 165
The “Lost Tribes of Israel” 166
The “Malay” Theory 167
The Phœnician Theory 171
The “Atlantic” Theory 174
It was an original Civilization 184

VIII. AMERICAN ANCIENT HISTORY 187
The Old Books not all lost 189
The Ancient History sketched 197
The Toltecs our Mound-Builders 200
Some confirmation of the History 205

IX. THE AZTEC CIVILIZATION 207
The Discovery and Invasion 209
The City of Mexico 211
The Conquest 213
Who were the Aztecs? 216
They came from the South 217

X. ANCIENT PERU 222
The Spanish Hunt for Peru 223
The Ruins near Lake Titicaca 226
Other Ruins in Peru 237
The great Peruvian Roads 243
The Peruvian Civilization 246

XI. PERUVIAN ANCIENT HISTORY 257
Garcilasso’s History 258
Fernando Montesinos 261
His Scheme of Peruvian History 264
Probabilities 268
Conclusion 272

APPENDIX 277
A. The Northmen in America 279
B. The Welsh in America 285
C. Antiquities of the Pacific Islands 288
D. Deciphering the Inscriptions 292




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page
1. Gateway at Labna _Frontispiece._
2. Great Mound near Miamisburg 16
3. Square Mound near Marietta 18
4. Works at Cedar Bank, Ohio 19
5. Works in Washington County, Mississippi 20
6. Works at Hopeton, Ohio 22
7. Principal Figures of the Hopeton Works 23
8. Graded Way near Piketon, Ohio 25
9. Great Serpent Inclosure 29
10. Fortified Hill, Butler County, Ohio 30
11. Stone-work in Paint Creek Valley, Ohio 35
12. Work on North Fork of Paint Creek 36
13. Ancient Work, Pike County, Ohio 38
14. Work near Brownsville, Ohio 38
15. Works near Liberty, Ohio 39
16. Work in Randolph County, Indiana 40
17. } Vases from the Mounds 41
18. }
19. Ancient Mining Shaft 45
20. Pueblo Ruin at Pecos 80
21. Modern Zuni 81
22. Ruins in the Valley of the Gila 83
23. Pueblo Building restored 87
24. Ground Plan of the Building 88
25. Arch of Los[TN-2] Monjas, Uxmal 98
26. Arch most common in the Ruins 100
27. Casa No. 1, Palenque 107
28. Casa No. 2 (La Cruz), Palenque 108
29. Great Wall at Copan 112
30. Ruins at Mitla 116
31. Great Hall at Mitla 118
32. A ruined “Palace” at Mitla 119
33. Mosaic Decoration at Mitla 120
34. Great Mound at Mayapan 127
35. Circular Edifice at Mayapan 129
36. Casa del Gobernador, Uxmal 132
37. Ground Plan 132
38. Two-headed Figure at Uxmal 133
39. Decorations over Doorway, Uxmal 134
40. Ground Plan of Las Monjas, Uxmal 136
41. Ruined Arch at Kabah 139
42. Casa Colorada, Chichen-Itza 141
43. Great Stone Ring 143
44.



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